Civilian Crisis Management
Finland takes an active part in international civilian crisis management in conflict areas with a view to promoting transition to democracy, respect for human rights and the rule of law, good governance and the consolidation of effective civil society structures.
- Implementation of Civilian crisis management
- Civilian crisis management missions
- Development of the Union's civilian crisis management
- EU's civilian crisis management operations
- UN operations in which civilian crisis management experts
The main form of action is deployment of civilian experts to operations undertaken by the European Union and international organisations.
The Ministry for Foreign Affairs is responsible for the political guidance of civilian crisis management and decides to which operations Finland will contribute experts. The costs arising from participation in missions are financed from the budget of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs. The Ministry of the Interior is responsible for the maintenance of domestic preparedness, development and coordination. The division of labour is based on the act on civilians’ participation in crisis management (Laki siviilihenkilöstön osallistumisesta kriisinhallintaan 1287/2004).
The Crisis Management Centre (CMC)
The Crisis Management Centre, CMC, in Kuopio is a centre of expertise operating under the administration of the Ministry of the Interior, which is responsible for the operative tasks related to domestic preparedness. The CMC’s key functions are recruitment and training of personnel to be sent to crisis areas, administrative task, materials and logistics, formulation and maintenance of the situation picture as well as research related to civilian crisis management.
EU Monitoring Mission (EUMM) Georgia, Europa Day 2010 (Photo EUMM)
Ms Catherine Ashton, EU’s HR Ashton meets with Heads of EUPOL COPPS and EUBAM RAFAH, 18 March 2010 (Photo: Council of the European Union)
Civilian crisis management operations are not limited to crisis areas but taken also to areas where the key functions of society require external assistance. The principal areas of civilian crisis management are the police, judiciary, border control, customs, prison management and other public authorities.
Civilian crisis management tasks can also involve monitoring of the implementation of peace and ceasefire agreements and promotion of minority issues and democracy. To an increasing extent, a more thorough reform of the local security sector is also under way, including the army, the police, the border guard and the customs.
The functions of civilian crisis management staff range from monitoring and training tasks to secondments to the police or the judiciary. The EU uses this kind of secondment, that is, executive powers, for the first time in connection with EULEX Kosovo Rule of Law mission, which was launched in 2008.
The pools of experts trained to be deployable to missions include, for example, police officers, judges, prosecutors, prison personnel, border officers, customs officials, human rights and equality experts or administrative experts.
Finland’s participation has clearly increased in the past years. In October 2010, as many as 160 Finnish civilian crisis management experts were involved in different missions. In addition, Finland sends some 100 to 120 persons annually to election observation missions deployed by the EU and the OSCE. Finland seeks to increase the number of women in civilian crisis management. In 2010, about a third of Finnish civilian crisis staff were women.
Finland’s participation has clearly increased in the past years. In June 2011, as many as 160 Finnish civilian crisis management experts were involved in different missions.
In addition, Finland sends some 100 to 120 persons annually to election observation missions deployed by the EU and the OSCE. Finland seeks to increase the number of women in civilian crisis management. In 2011, about a third of Finnish civilian crisis staff were women.
Via the European Union
From Finland's point of view, the principal actor in civilian crisis management is the European Union. Finland participates in most civilian crisis management operation or support functions conducted under the administration of the European Union’s Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP).
Via the OSCE, the UN and NATO
Finnish senior officials are working in the field missions of the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). Finnish civilian crisis management experts are also engaged in some UN-led crisis management operations. Finland has also deployed civilian experts to missions led by NATO, such as the Provincial Reconstruction Team, PRT, under the International Security Assistance Force, ISAF, in Afghanistan. Finns are also serving in civilian crisis management tasks in, for example, the Secretariats of the EU, the OSCE and NATO.
In the Presidency Conclusions of the Helsinki European Council, adopted in December 1999, the EU decided to develop the civilian aspects of the Union's crisis management. The first priority areas were confirmed in the Feira European Council in June 2000. The following priority areas were identified: the police, strengthening of the rule of law and civilian administration in crisis situations and the civil protection. At a later stage, monitoring, support for the Special Representatives, and civilian response teams were added to the priorities (Civilian Response Teams, CRT).
The European Union's civilian crisis management has developed dynamically and civilian crisis management operations have increased rapidly. At the beginning of 2011, ten civilian crisis management missions were conducted by the EU, and it is also engaged in a so-called Capabilities Development, which means systematic work to develop the civilian aspects of crisis management. It refers to determination of the resources that the EU needs in future to be capable of conducting effective crisis management missions. The implementation of Civilian Headline Goal 2010 is under way at present.
EUPM, the first mission launched in 2003 for an initial period of three years. The EUPM’s mandate has been modified several times and the mission’s size has been reduced over the years. Its current mandate, adopted in autumn 2009, will extend until the end of 2011. Greater emphasis than before is put on support for combat against organized crime and corruption.
EULEX Kosovo, which was launched at the end of 2008, is the largest civilian mission ever under the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) with about 2,000 international experts. At the beginning of 2009, Finland had contributed about 60 experts to the operation, the largest number of personnel to any single operation.
EULEX Kosovo employs International Police Officers (IPOs), border control experts, experts of the judiciary (such as judges, prosecutors and experts in correctional treatment of prisoners) and customs officers. In accordance with its mission statement, EULEX Kosovo assists Kosovo authorities in establishing an independent and multi-ethnic police, law, border control and customs system, which is in agreement with international standards. Implementing the mandate through monitoring, mentoring and advising is meant to help Kosovo authorities to become responsible for the functioning of their own institutions independently.
The European Union's civilian crisis management operation EUJUST LEX was established in 2005. Its goal is to strengthen the principle of the rule of law and promote a culture of respect for human rights in Iraq. In the framework of the operation, Iraqi officials of the criminal justice system are offered training with a view to, for example, fostering confidence and operational cooperation between the different branches of the Iraqi criminal justice system. Finland has contributed to the operation by providing Iraqi public authorities training in the rehabilitation of prisoners and police training.
The European Union's police mission for the Palestinian Territories (EUPOL-COPPS) launched in 2005. The operational phase began in 2006 with an initial duration of 3 years. It's a civilian mission, which builds on the work of the EU Coordination Office for Palestinian Police Support (EU COPPS) under the ESDP. It aims to contribute to the implementation of a Police Development Programme for the Palestinian Civil Police, to continue the coordination of Member States' and, as required, international assistance started by EU COPPS, as well as to advise on police-related criminal justice elements.
EU Border Assistance Mission (EU BAM) at Rafah, Gaza, launched in November 2005. EU BAM's mandate is actively monitor, verify and evaluate PA performance with regard to the implementation of the Agreed Principles for Rafah Crossing and will act with authority to ensure that the PA complies with all applicable rules and regulations concerning the Rafah Crossing Point and the terms of the Agreed Principles for Rafah Crossing. Due to political discord, the operations have been suspended since summer 2007, but EUBAM remains fully prepared to redeploy to the Rafah Crossing Point at short notice.
The EU supports security sector reform in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) by means of two ESDP operations, launched in 2005. EUSEC RD Congo supports the disarmament of armed groups, integration of ex-combatants to the army of the country, and payment of soldiers' wages (chain of payment project). EUPOL RD Congo focuses on the police reform in the DRC. The operation aims to contribute to the comprehensive reform of the Police of the DRC. EUPOL RD Congo is also linked with the broader legal reform financed by the Commission.
- EU security sector reform mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (EUSEC RD Congo)
- EUPOL RD CONGO
The EU launched the European Union Border Assistance Mission (EUBAM) in Moldova and Ukraine in December 2005. The mission’s aim is to enhance the border and customs management capacities in Moldova and Ukraine and to assist and advise the public authorities in examining cargoes and passengers. Finland contributes some border and customs experts to the operation.
EU launched the EU Police Mission in Afghanistan (EUPOL Afghanistan) in June 2007. The mission aims to train the Afghan Ministry of Interior, policemen, crime investigators and the border management, and thus strengthen the local authorities' capacity to assume responsibility independently.
The target strength of the mission is 400 international experts. In addition to the contribution of staff, Finland has granted a voluntary donation for the launch-up phase of the mission as well as funding for security arrangements.
A civilian monitoring mission, established on 15 September 2008 as a result of the conflict in Georgia, monitors compliance with the so-called six-point peace plan and the agreement on its implementation, concluded between Russia and Georgia on 12 August 2008.
The main objectives of EUMM Georgia are to monitor and report on troop withdrawals, freedom of movement, return of internally displaced persons, normalisation of public order, and possible human rights violations, as well as to seek ways to contribute to relaxing tensions through facilitation of contacts between the parties. Suomalaisia asiantuntijoita operaatiossa on noin 20. Finland contributes 20 experts to the operation.
A joint African Union (AU) /United Nations Hybrid operation took overall responsibility for the AMIS (African Union Mission in Sudan) operation as from the beginning of 2008. UNAMID seeks to establish stability in Darfur, Sudan. Its role includes, for example, supporting the implementation of the Darfur Peace Agreement, protecting assistance personnel in their work in the area, and securing public safety.
- United Nations - African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID)
- Finland's participation in the UN's peacekeeping operations (MFA)
The United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad, MINURCAT, was launched in 2007. The operation’s mandate covers protection of civilians, promotion of human rights and the rule of law, and contribution to regional peace. Training of police officers is an integral part of the efforts to strengthen structures essential for the materialization of the rule of law.
- MINURCAT: United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad
- Finland's participation in the UN's peacekeeping operations (MFA)
Also in this site
- Civilian crisis management (Council of the EU)
- Civilian Headline Goal 2010 (PDF)
- Overview of the missions and operations of the EU (The Council of the European Union)
- Action Plan for Civilian Aspects of ESDP > CSDP (The Council of the European Union)
- Civilian crisis management (The Ministry of the Interior)
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