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Civilian Crisis Management

EU Monitoring Mission (EUMM) Georgia, Zugdidi 2010 (Photo: EUMM)EU Monitoring Mission (EUMM) Georgia, Zugdidi 2010 (Photo: EUMM)

Finland takes an active part in international civilian crisis management in conflict areas with a view to promoting transition to democracy, respect for human rights and the rule of law, good governance and the consolidation of effective civil society structures.

Implementation of Civilian crisis management

The main form of action is deployment of civilian experts to operations undertaken by the European Union and international organisations.

The Ministry for Foreign Affairs is responsible for the political guidance of civilian crisis management and decides to which operations Finland will contribute experts. The costs arising from participation in missions are financed from the budget of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs. The Ministry of the Interior is responsible for the maintenance of domestic preparedness, development and coordination. The division of labour is based on the act on civilians’ participation in crisis management (Laki siviilihenkilöstön osallistumisesta kriisinhallintaan 1287/2004).

The Crisis Management Centre (CMC)

The Crisis Management Centre, CMC, in Kuopio is a centre of expertise operating under the administration of the Ministry of the Interior, which is responsible for the operative tasks related to domestic preparedness. The CMC’s key functions are recruitment and training of personnel to be sent to crisis areas, administrative task, materials and logistics, formulation and maintenance of the situation picture as well as research related to civilian crisis management.

Civilian crisis management missions

Civilian crisis management operations are not limited to crisis areas but are taken also to areas where the key functions of society require external assistance. The principal areas of civilian crisis management are the police, judiciary, border control, customs, prison management and other public authorities.

Civilian crisis management tasks can also involve monitoring of the implementation of peace and ceasefire agreements and promotion of minority issues and democracy. To an increasing extent, a more thorough reform of the local security sector is also under way, including the army, the police, the border guard and the customs.

The functions of civilian crisis management staff range from monitoring and training tasks to secondments to the police or the judiciary. The EU has used this kind of secondment, that is, executive powers, for the first time in connection with EULEX Kosovo Rule of Law mission, which was launched in 2008. The pools of experts trained to be deployable to missions include, for example, police officers, judges, prosecutors, prison personnel, border officers, customs officials, human rights and equality experts or administrative experts.

Finland’s participation

In April 2013, about 100 Finnish civilian crisis management experts were involved in different missions. In addition, Finland sends almost 100 persons annually to election observation missions deployed by the EU and the OSCE. Finland seeks to increase the number of women in civilian crisis management. At present about 40 per cent of Finnish civilian crisis staff are women.

Via the European Union

In April 2013, about 100 Finnish civilian crisis management experts were involved in different missions. In addition, Finland sends almost 100 persons annually to election observation missions deployed by the EU and the OSCE. Finland seeks to increase the number of women in civilian crisis management. At present about 40 per cent of Finnish civilian crisis staff are women.

Via the OSCE, the UN and NATO

Finnish senior officials are working in the field missions of the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). Finland has also deployed civilian experts to missions led by NATO, such as the Provincial Reconstruction Team, PRT, under the International Security Assistance Force, ISAF, in Afghanistan. Finns are also serving in civilian crisis management tasks in, for example, the Secretariats of the EU, the OSCE and NATO.

Development of the Union's civilian crisis management

In the Presidency Conclusions of the Helsinki European Council, adopted in December 1999, the EU decided to develop the civilian aspects of the Union’s crisis management. The first priority areas were confirmed in the Feira European Council in June 2000. The following priority areas were identified: the police, strengthening of the rule of law and civilian administration in crisis situations and the civil protection. At a later stage, monitoring, support for the Special Representatives, and civilian response teams were added to the priorities (Civilian Response Teams, CRT).

The European Union’s civilian crisis management has developed dynamically and civilian crisis management operations have increased rapidly. EU is also engaged in a so-called Capabilities Development, which means systematic work to develop the civilian aspects of crisis management. It refers to determination of the resources that the EU needs in future to be capable of conducting effective crisis management missions. The implementation of Civilian Headline Goal 2010 is under way at present.

EU's civilian crisis management operations

The EU's EULEX Kosovo Justice Component (EULEX)


EULEX Kosovo, which was launched at the end of 2008, is the largest civilian mission ever under the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP). Following its reorganisation in June 2012, the mission has about 1200 international experts. Finland makes a substantial contribution to the mission; 34 Finnish experts were participating at the start of April 2013

EULEX Kosovo employs International Police Officers (IPOs), border control experts, experts of the judiciary (such as judges, prosecutors and experts in correctional treatment of prisoners) and customs officers. In accordance with its mission statement, EULEX Kosovo assists Kosovo authorities in establishing an independent and multi-ethnic police, law, border control and customs system, which is in agreement with international standards. Implementing the mandate through monitoring, mentoring and advising is meant to help Kosovo authorities to become responsible for the functioning of their own institutions independently.

EU Police Mission in the Palestinian Territories (EUPOL COPPS)

The Palestinian Territories

The European Union's police mission for the Palestinian Territories (EUPOL-COPPS) launched in 2005. The operational phase began in 2006 with an initial duration of 3 years. It's a civilian mission, which builds on the work of the EU Coordination Office for Palestinian Police Support (EU COPPS) under the ESDP.

It aims to contribute to the implementation of a Police Development Programme for the Palestinian Civil Police, to continue the coordination of Member States' and, as required, international assistance started by EU COPPS, as well as to advise on police-related criminal justice elements. The mission has about 40 local and 70 international experts; five of them were Finns at the beginning of April.

EU Border Assistance Mission (EUBAM) in Libya

Libya (Tripoli)

EUBAM Libya (EU Border Assistance Mission in Libya) is a civilian mission, established by a decision of the Council of the European Union, to support the Libyan authorities in improving and developing security at the country’s borders. Its objective is to train Libyan land, sea and air border guards and to support the creation of an Integrated Border Management (IBM) strategy. The mission headquarters is in Tripoli.

Mr Antti Hartikainen has been appointed to serves as the Head of EUBAM Libya. The mission will employ a total of 111 international staff. Finland's aim is to contribute about ten (10) experts to the mission.

Close bilateral working relations with the United Nations Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL) is of key importance for EUBAM Libya. According to UNSMIL's mandate, it is to support the Libyan government in its efforts to stabilise the security situation.

European Union Border Assistance Mission to Moldova and Ukraine (EUBAM)

Moldova and Ukraine

The EU launched the European Union Border Assistance Mission (EUBAM) in Moldova and Ukraine in December 2005. The mission’s aim is to enhance the border and customs management capacities in Moldova and Ukraine and to assist and advise the public authorities in examining cargoes and passengers. Finland contributes some border and customs experts to the operation. = The operation has about 120 local and 100 internation experts. Finland’s participation in the mission in April 2013 was three border and customs experts.

EU Police Mission in Afghanistan (EUPOL)


EU launched the EU Police Mission in Afghanistan (EUPOL Afghanistan) in June 2007. The mission aims to train the Afghan Ministry of Interior, policemen, crime investigators and the border management, and thus strengthen the local authorities’ capacity to assume responsibility independently.

The target strength of the mission is 400 international experts. In addition to the contribution of staff, Finland has granted a voluntary donation for the launch-up phase of the mission as well as funding for security arrangements. In April 2013, 35 Finns were working in the mission.

EU Monitoring Mission in Georgia (EUMM)


A civilian monitoring mission, established on 15 September 2008 as a result of the conflict in Georgia, monitors compliance with the so-called six-point peace plan and the agreement on its implementation, concluded between Russia and Georgia on 12 August 2008.

The main objectives of EUMM Georgia are to monitor and report on troop withdrawals, freedom of movement, return of internally displaced persons, normalisation of public order, and possible human rights violations, as well as to seek ways to contribute to relaxing tensions through facilitation of contacts between the parties. The goal is for the mission to have a strength of 200 international experts. In April 2013, 14 Finnish experts were participating in the mission.

EUCAP Nestor mission

Horn of Africa region

The objective of the EUCAP Nestor mission is to support regional maritime capacity building in the region of the Horn of Africa and to strengthen judicial systems in the region so that those suspected of piracy are brought to trial. The mission has its headquarters in Djibouti but its operational area also includes the Seychelles, Kenya, Tanzania and Somalia. EUCAP Nestor is a mission with primarily civilian tasks, but it works in close cooperation with the EUNAFOR Atalanta and EUTM Somalia missions. EUCAP Nestor was launched in September 2012 and its full strength is planned to be about 150 persons. The first Finn began work at EUCAP Nestor at the start of 2013. 


pdfMap: Finnish participation in crisis management operations (PDF)

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